Endocannabinoid Anandamide Attenuates Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome through Modulation of Microbiome in the Gut-Lung Axis
Sultan, Wilson, Abdulla, Osama A., Busbee, Philip Brandon, Hall, Carter, Singh, Chatterjee
ARDS was induced in mice as described previously [ 9 28 ]. To that end, we measured the levels of SCFAs in Naïve, SEB + VEH and SEB + AEA and we found that butyric acid, valeric acid and isovaleric acid levels were significantly decreased in the SEB + VEH group when compared to the naïve mice, while in the SEB + AEA group, the levels of these SCFAs increased significantly compared to the SEB + VEH group ( Figure 9 ). Of significant note, there was an increase in the cluster numbered 6 (regulatory cell 2) in SEB + AEA when compared to SEB + VEH, consistent with our previous studies that AEA induces Tregs [ 9 ]. In the current study, we noted that AEA treatment increased the expression of mBD2, which was associated with decreased Pseudomonas in the SEB + AEA group when compared to SEB + VEH group. Interestingly, SEB also caused alterations in the lung and gut microbiota, specifically causing an abundance of pathogenic bacteria, such as Pseudomonas, while AEA reversed this effect.