Effects of Cannabidiol on Innate Immunity: Experimental Evidence and Clinical Relevance

Martini, Gemma, Ferrari, Cosentino, Marino, Stefano Martini, Alessandra Gemma, Marco Ferrari, Marco Cosentino, Franca Marino

After tissue infiltration, macrophages contribute to innate immune responses through antigen presentation, the production of several cytokines, such as IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-α, and the phagocytosis process [ 77 80 ]. Indeed, on the one hand, CBD’s effects on resting oligodendrocytes include an increase in ROS generation, which suggests a proinflammatory effect for CBD; on the other hand, the activation of apoptotic processes in these cells supports an anti-inflammatory role for CBD [ 114 115 ]. CBD was found to be involved in the decrease in microglial activation [ 102 104 ] and inhibition of ROS release by these cells [ 105 ]. In particular, in ex vivo models, PMN activation was shown to induce an increase in proinflammatory cytokine production [ 165 ], while treatment with CBD reduced TNF-α production only in activated cells [ 156 ]. Moreover, CBD seems to exert inhibitory effects on ROS and proinflammatory cytokine production, particularly in models in which PMNs were previously activated.

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